Eichenberg et al. (2018): Feasibility and Conceptualization of an e-Mental Health Treatment for Depression in Older Adults: Mixed-Methods Study


Back­ground: Depres­sion is one of the most com­mon men­tal dis­or­ders in older adults. Unfor­t­u­n­a­tely, it often goes unre­co­gni­zed in the older popu­la­tion.

Objec­tive: The aim of this study was to iden­tify how Web-based apps can reco­gnize and help treat depres­sion in older adults.

Methods: Focus groups were con­duc­ted with men­tal health care experts. A Web-based sur­vey of 56 older adults suf­fe­ring from depres­sion was con­duc­ted. Qua­li­ta­tive inter­views were con­duc­ted with 2 indi­vi­du­als.

Results: Results of the focus groups high­ligh­ted that there is a need for a col­la­bo­ra­tive care plat­form for depres­sion in old age. Fin­dings from the Web-based study showed that youn­ger par­ti­ci­pants (aged 50 to 64 years) used elec­tro­nic media more often than older par­ti­ci­pants (aged 65 years and older). The inter­views poin­ted in a com­pa­ra­ble direc­tion.

Con­clu­si­ons: Over­all, an e-mental (elec­tro­nic men­tal) health tre­at­ment for depres­sion in older adults would be well accep­ted. Web-based care plat­forms should be deve­lo­ped, eva­lua­ted, and in case of evi­dence for their effec­tiven­ess, inte­gra­ted into the ever­y­day cli­nic.

Zum voll­stän­di­gen Online-Artikel im Jour­nal of Medi­cal Inter­net Rese­arch: https://aging.jmir.org/2018/2/e10973/

Eichen­berg, C., Schott, M., Sawyer, A., Aumayr, G. & Plöß­nig, M. (2018). Fea­si­bi­lity and Con­cep­tua­liza­t­ion of an e-Mental Health Tre­at­ment for Depres­sion in Older Adults: Mixed-Methods Study. Jour­nal of Medi­cal Inter­net Rese­arch Aging, 1(2), e10973. DOI: 10.2196/10973.

Eichenberg & Auersperg (2018): Chancen und Risiken digitaler Medien für Kinder und Jugendliche

Eichenberg & Auersperg (2018)


Die­ser Rat­ge­ber befasst sich mit den Poten­zia­len der Nut­zung digi­ta­ler Medien im Kindes- und Jugend­al­ter sowie mit mög­li­chen Risi­ken. Eltern und Päd­ago­gen fin­den hier alters­spe­zi­fi­sche Tipps für die Ver­mitt­lung von Medi­en­kom­pe­tenz.

Über­blick über die Nut­zungs­pra­xis ver­schie­de­ner Medien
Poten­ziale moder­ner Medi­en­nut­zung
Mög­li­che Risi­ken
Check­lis­ten, Fall­bei­spiele und Ver­hal­ten­s­tipps

Die­ses Buch rich­tet sich an: Eltern, Leh­rer, Erzie­her, (Sozial-)Pädagogen, Vor­schul­päd­ago­gen, Sozi­al­ar­bei­ter, Schul­psy­cho­lo­gen, Kinder- und Jugend­li­chen­psy­cho­the­ra­peu­ten, Kinder- und Jugend­psych­ia­ter, Mit­ar­bei­ter in Fami­li­en­be­ra­tungs­stel­len, Medien- und Ent­wick­lungs­psy­cho­lo­gen.

Digi­tale Medien haben in der Lebens­welt von Kin­dern und Jugend­li­chen eine hohe Bedeu­tung. Dabei gehen mit der Nut­zung moder­ner Medien sowohl Chan­cen als auch Risi­ken ein­her. Eltern und Päd­ago­gen ste­hen vor der Her­aus­for­de­rung, die Medi­en­kom­pe­tenz von Kin­dern und Jugend­li­chen kon­struk­tiv zu för­dern. Dies kann jedoch nur gelin­gen, wenn Erwach­sene wis­sen, was Her­an­wach­sende heute im Inter­net bzw. mit ihrem Smart­phone tun.

Der Rat­ge­ber gibt zunächst einen Über­blick über die aktu­elle Nut­zungs­pra­xis ver­schie­de­ner Medien: Wel­che Medien wer­den heute von Kin­dern und Jugend­li­chen zu wel­chem Zweck und vor allem mit wel­chen Effek­ten genutzt? Anschlie­ßend wer­den aus ent­wick­lungs­psy­cho­lo­gi­scher Per­spek­tive die Poten­ziale moder­ner Medi­en­nut­zung für die Berei­che Ler­nen, Spie­len, Auf­bau und Pflege sozia­ler Bezie­hun­gen sowie Infor­ma­ti­ons­aus­tausch, Mei­nungs­bil­dung und Unter­stüt­zung bei typi­schen Pro­ble­men im Jugend­al­ter (z.B. Selbst­hil­fe­fo­ren, Auf­klä­rung) dar­ge­stellt. Den Chan­cen, die mit der Nut­zung digi­ta­ler Medien ver­bun­den sind, wer­den mög­li­che Risi­ken gegen­über­ge­stellt (z.B. Inter­net­sucht, Cyber­mob­bing, sexu­elle Gewalt). Auf der Basis aktu­el­ler wis­sen­schaft­li­cher Befunde wer­den kon­krete Hil­fe­stel­lun­gen in Form von Check­lis­ten, Fall­bei­spie­len und Ver­hal­ten­s­tipps zum Umgang mit moder­nen Medien gege­ben. Eltern und Päd­ago­gen fin­den in die­sem Rat­ge­ber alters­spe­zi­fi­sche Hin­weise für eine sinn­volle Ver­mitt­lung von Medi­en­kom­pe­tenz Zuhause sowie in Bil­dungs­ein­rich­tun­gen.

Eichen­berg, C. & Auer­sperg, F. (2018). Chan­cen und Risi­ken digi­ta­ler Medien für Kin­der und Jugend­li­che. Ein Rat­ge­ber für Eltern und Päd­ago­gen. Göt­tin­gen: Hog­refe.

Eichen­berg, Huss & Küsel (2017): From online dating to online divorce


The deve­lop­ment of digi­tal media over the last 20 years has led to seis­mic chan­ges wit­hin many aspects of daily life. This inclu­des nume­rous facets of family rela­ti­ons­hips that have not escaped the digi­tal revo­lu­tion of the last two deca­des. From the very early sta­ges of initia­ting rela­ti­ons­hips to types of post-break-up beha­vi­ors, the Inter­net has the poten­tial to play an influ­en­tial role in all areas of family and par­ti­cu­larly couple rela­ti­ons­hips. This paper exami­nes how ICTs (“infor­ma­tion and com­mu­ni­ca­tion tech­no­logy”) can shape such rela­ti­ons­hips. The impact on the various sta­ges of rela­ti­ons­hips is sys­te­ma­ti­zed (rela­ti­ons­hip deve­lop­ment, couple and family for­ma­tion, sepa­ra­tion) with a spe­cial focus on inter­ge­ne­ra­tio­nal oppor­tu­nities and con­flicts asso­cia­ted with modern media usage. Against the back­ground of psy­cho­lo­gi­cal and media com­mu­ni­ca­tion theo­ries and psy­cho­the­ra­peutic approa­ches as well as empi­ri­cal fin­dings the fol­lo­wing topics are con­side­red: 1. Initia­tion of rela­ti­ons­hips through ICTs (e.g. meet new part­ners through online dating); 2. Impact of digi­tal media on rela­ti­ons­hip deve­lop­ment and exis­ting part­nerships (e.g. new oppor­tu­nities and internet-related chal­len­ges that have to be faced by cou­ples) 3. Influ­ence of ICTs on sepa­ra­ti­ons (e.g. online media­tion, get­ting divorced online). In sum­mary, the role of ICTs in new, exis­ting and sepa­ra­ted part­nerships and fami­lies is mul­ti­fa­ce­ted. An out­look on fur­ther deve­lop­ments as well as rese­arch desi­de­rata is given.

Eichen­berg, C., Huss, J. & Küsel, C. (2017). From online dating to online divorce: An over­view of couple and family rela­ti­ons­hips shaped though digi­tal media. Con­tem­porary Family The­rapy, 39, 249–260.

Tha­b­rew, Sawyer & Eichen­berg (2018): Patient-Targeted Goog­ling by New Zea­land Men­tal Health Pro­fes­sio­nals


Back­ground: Patient-targeted goog­ling (PTG) descri­bes the sear­ching on the inter­net by health­care pro­fes­sio­nals for infor­ma­tion about pati­ents with or without their know­ledge.

Intro­duc­tion: Little rese­arch has been con­duc­ted into PTG inter­na­tio­nally. PTG can have par­ti­cu­lar ethi­cal impli­ca­ti­ons wit­hin the field of men­tal health. This study was under­ta­ken to iden­tify the extent of PTG by New Zea­land men­tal health­care pro­fes­sio­nals and needs for fur­ther gui­dance regar­ding this issue.

Mate­ri­als and Methods: All (1850) psych­ia­trists, cli­ni­cal psy­cho­lo­gists and psy­cho­the­ra­pists working in New Zea­land were elec­tro­ni­cally sur­veyed about their expe­ri­ence of PTG and know­ledge about the asso­cia­ted prac­tice of therapist-targeted goog­ling (TTG). Due to ethics and adver­ti­sing restric­tions, only one indi­rect approach was made to poten­tial par­ti­ci­pants.

Results: Eighty eight cli­ni­ci­ans (5%) respon­ded to the sur­vey invi­ta­tion. More than half (53.4%, N=47) of respond­ents repor­tedly enga­ged in PTG, but only a mino­rity (10.3%, N=9) had ever recei­ved any edu­ca­tion about the sub­ject. Rea­sons for under­ta­king PTG inclu­ded faci­li­ta­ting the the­ra­peutic pro­cess, infor­ma­tion being in the public domain and miti­ga­ting risks. Rea­sons against under­ta­king PTG inclu­ded impair­ment of the the­ra­peutic rela­ti­ons­hip, unethi­cal inva­sion of pri­vacy and con­cerns regar­ding the accu­racy and cli­ni­cal rele­vance of online infor­ma­tion. Two-thirds of par­ti­ci­pants repor­ted being the sub­ject of TTG.

Dis­cus­sion: New Zea­land psych­ia­trists, cli­ni­cal psy­cho­lo­gists and psy­cho­the­ra­pists are enga­ging in PTG with limi­ted edu­ca­tion and pro­fes­sio­nal gui­dance. Fur­ther dis­cus­sion and rese­arch are requi­red so PTG is under­ta­ken in a man­ner that is safe and use­ful for pati­ents and health prac­ti­tio­ners.

Tha­b­rew, H., Sawyer, A. & Eichen­berg, C. (2018). Patient-Targeted Goog­ling by New Zea­land Men­tal Health Pro­fes­sio­nals: A New Field Of Ethi­cal Con­side­ra­tion in the Inter­net Age. Tele­me­di­cine & e-Health, DOI: 10.1089/tmj.2017.0247.

Selbstbehandlung und Selbstmedikation

Eichenberg & Kühne (2014)

Viele Men­schen nut­zen bestimmte For­men der Selbst­be­hand­lung, sei es bei kör­per­li­chen oder psy­chi­schen Erkran­kun­gen oder auch zur Prä­ven­tion und Reha­bi­li­ta­tion. Ins­be­son­dere wird dabei auf nicht ver­schrei­bungs­pflich­tige Medi­ka­mente zurück­ge­grif­fen. Die Bei­träge des vor­lie­gen­den Ban­des set­zen sich aus ver­schie­de­nen Blick­win­keln und unter Berück­sich­ti­gung wis­sen­schaft­li­cher Befunde mit die­sem Thema aus­ein­an­der.

Zunächst gibt der Band in meh­re­ren Kapi­teln einen Über­blick über den all­ge­mei­nen Medi­ka­men­ten­ge­brauch bei ver­schie­de­nen Pati­en­ten­grup­pen. Anschlie­ßend wird auf die Selbst­be­hand­lung und Selbst­me­di­ka­tion bei ver­schie­de­nen Indi­ka­tio­nen wie z.B. Kopf­schmer­zen, Such­ter­kran­kun­gen, Zwangs- und Ess­stö­run­gen ein­ge­gan­gen. Wei­tere Kapi­tel dis­ku­tie­ren die Selbst­be­hand­lung im Rah­men der soge­nann­ten komplementär-alternativen Medi­zin sowie den Ein­satz von krea­ti­ven Ver­fah­ren wie Musik-, Schreib-, Tanz- und Biblio­the­ra­pie. Abschlie­ßend wer­den Akti­vi­tä­ten der Selbst­hilfe wie die Nut­zung von Rat­ge­ber­li­te­ra­tur und Selbsthilfe­gruppen im rea­len und vir­tu­el­len Set­ting the­ma­ti­siert.

Der Band bie­tet somit Infor­ma­tio­nen und Hil­fe­stel­lun­gen für alle Per­so­nen, die in der Behand­lung und Bera­tung von Pati­en­ten tätig sind, sowie für Men­schen, die gene­rell an ihrer Gesund­heit inter­es­siert sind.

Wei­tere Infor­ma­tio­nen auf der Verlags-Website

Eichen­berg, C., Bräh­ler, E. & Hoefert, H.-W. (Hrsg.) (2017). Selbst­be­hand­lung und Selbst­me­di­ka­tion – medi­zi­ni­sche und psy­cho­lo­gi­sche Aspekte. Göt­tin­gen: Hog­refe.

Einführung Psychotraumatologie

Eichenberg & Kühne (2014)

Die Bedeu­tung der Psy­cho­t­rau­ma­to­lo­gie ver­zeich­net einen rasan­ten Zuwachs in Kli­nik, For­schung und Lehre. Psy­chi­sche Trau­mata zu erken­nen und zu behan­deln wird in psy­cho­so­zia­len Beru­fen immer wich­ti­ger. Die­ses Buch gibt einen kom­pak­ten Ein­blick in Ätio­lo­gie, Dia­gnos­tik und Behand­lung psy­chi­scher Trau­mata. Fall­bei­spiele und Inter­ven­ti­ons­stra­te­gien berei­ten auf den Umgang mit trau­ma­ti­sier­ten Men­schen vor. Berück­sich­tigt wird ins­be­son­dere die Rolle von Res­sour­cen und Resi­li­enz sowie digi­ta­ler Medien. Das Spek­trum der Inter­ven­tio­nen reicht von Prä­ven­tion, Akut­in­ter­ven­tion und Psy­cho­edu­ka­tion bis hin zu diver­sen psy­cho­the­ra­peu­ti­schen Ver­fah­ren und Stra­te­gien der Psy­cho­hy­giene für Hel­fer. Ein Über­blick über die Begut­ach­tung von Trau­ma­fol­ge­stö­run­gen, Fra­gen zu den Kapi­teln und Inter­net­links run­den das Lehr­buch ab.

Wei­tere Infor­ma­tio­nen auf der Verlags-Website

Eichen­berg, C. & Zim­mer­mann, P. (2017). Ein­füh­rung Psy­cho­t­rau­ma­to­lo­gie. Mün­chen: UTB.

Christiane Eichenberg und Markus Schott (2017): Serious Games for Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review


Intro­duc­tion: In the evol­ving digi­tal age, media app­li­ca­ti­ons are increa­sin­gly play­ing a grea­ter role in the field of psy­cho­the­rapy. While the Inter­net is alre­ady in the phase of being esta­blis­hed when it comes to the care of men­tal dis­or­ders, expe­ri­men­ta­tion is going on with other modern media such as serious games. A serious game is a game in which edu­ca­tion and beha­vior change is the goal, along­s­ide with enter­tain­ment.

Objec­tive: The objec­tive of the pre­sent arti­cle was to pro­vide a first empi­ri­cal over­view of serious games app­lied to psy­cho­the­rapy and psy­cho­so­ma­tic reha­bi­li­ta­tion.

Method: The­re­fore, a sys­te­ma­tic lite­ra­ture search, inclu­ding the terms “serious game” or “com­pu­ter game” and “psy­cho­the­rapy” or “reha­bi­li­ta­tion” or “inter­ven­tion” or “men­tal dis­or­ders” in the data­ba­ses Med­line and Psy­cINFO, was per­for­med. Sub­se­quently, an Inter­net search was con­duc­ted to iden­tify stu­dies not publis­hed in jour­nals. Publi­ca­ti­ons not pro­vi­ding empi­ri­cal data about effec­tiven­ess were exclu­ded.

Results: On the basis of this sys­te­ma­tic lite­ra­ture review, the results of N = 15 stu­dies met inclu­sion cri­te­ria. They uti­li­zed pri­ma­rily cogni­tive beha­vio­ral tech­ni­ques and can be use­ful for trea­ting a range of men­tal dis­or­ders. Serious games are effec­tive both as a stand-alone inter­ven­tion or part of psy­cho­the­rapy and appeal to pati­ents inde­pen­dent of age and sex.

Con­clu­si­ons: Inclu­ded serious games pro­ved to be an effec­tive the­ra­peutic com­po­nent. Nonethe­l­ess, fin­dings are not con­clu­sive and more rese­arch is nee­ded to fur­ther inves­ti­gate the effec­tiven­ess of serious games for psy­cho­the­ra­peutic pur­po­ses.

Eichen­berg, C. & Schott, M. (2017). Serious Games for Psy­cho­the­rapy: A Sys­te­ma­tic Review. Games for Health, 3, 127–135.

Eichenberg et al. (2017): Attachment Style and Internet Addiction: An Online Survey


Back­ground: One of the cli­ni­cally rele­vant pro­blems of Inter­net use is the pheno­me­non of Inter­net addic­tion. Con­side­ring the fact that there is ample evi­dence for the rela­ti­ons­hip bet­ween attach­ment style and sub­stance abuse, it stands to rea­son that attach­ment theory can also make an important cont­ri­bu­tion to the under­stan­ding of the patho­ge­ne­sis of Inter­net addic­tion.

Objec­tive:The aim of this study was to examine people’s ten­dency toward patho­lo­gi­cal Inter­net usage in rela­tion to their attach­ment style.

Methods: An online sur­vey was con­duc­ted. Soci­ode­mo­gra­phic data, attach­ment style (Bie­le­feld ques­ti­on­naire part­nership expec­ta­ti­ons), sym­ptoms of Inter­net addic­tion (scale for online addic­tion for adults), used Web-based ser­vices, and online rela­ti­ons­hip moti­ves (Cyber Rela­ti­ons­hip Motive Scale, CRMS-D) were asses­sed. In order to con­firm the fin­dings, a study using the Ror­schach test was also con­duc­ted.

Results: In total, 245 sub­jects were recrui­ted. Par­ti­ci­pants with inse­cure attach­ment style showed a hig­her ten­dency to patho­lo­gi­cal Inter­net usage com­pa­red with secu­rely atta­ched par­ti­ci­pants. An ambi­va­lent attach­ment style was par­ti­cu­larly asso­cia­ted with patho­lo­gi­cal Inter­net usage. Esca­pist and social-compensatory moti­ves played an important role for inse­cu­rely atta­ched sub­jects. Howe­ver, there were no signi­fi­cant effects with respect to Web-based ser­vices and apps used. Results of the ana­ly­sis of the Ror­schach pro­to­col with 16 sub­jects corr­o­bo­ra­ted these results. Users with patho­lo­gi­cal Inter­net use fre­quently showed signs of infan­tile rela­ti­ons­hip struc­tu­res in the con­text of social groups. This refers to the results of the Web-based sur­vey, in which inter­per­so­nal rela­ti­ons­hips were the result of an inse­cure attach­ment style.

Con­clu­si­ons: Patho­lo­gi­cal Inter­net use was a func­tion of inse­cure attach­ment and limi­ted inter­per­so­nal rela­ti­ons­hips.

Zum voll­stän­di­gen Online-Artikel im Jour­nal of Medi­cal Inter­net Rese­arch: http://www.jmir.org/2017/5/e170/

Eichen­berg, C., Schott, M., Decker, O. & Sin­delar, B. (2017). Attach­ment style and Inter­net addic­tion. Jour­nal of Medi­cal Inter­net Research,m19(5):e170, DOI: 10.2196/jmir.6694.

Christiane Eichenberg & Markus Schott (2016): An Empirical Analysis of Internet Message Boards for Self-Harming Behavior


Much debate sur­rounds the poten­tial effects of self-harm forum use. Argu­ments in favor high­light fac­tors such as pro­vi­ding access to a sup­por­tive com­mu­nity. Howe­ver cri­ti­cal voice high­light­ing poten­tial dan­gers such as forums ser­ving as a plat­form to pro­mote self-harm, clearly domi­nate the debate. Using an online ques­ti­on­naire, the goal of the cur­rent study was to examine soci­ode­mo­gra­phic cha­rac­te­ris­tics, the psy­cho­pa­tho­logy of forum users, moti­ves for par­ti­ci­pa­ting, and sub­jec­tive effects of self-harm forum use. A total of 309 self-harm forum users par­ti­ci­pa­ted in this study. 3 hete­ro­ge­neous user types with dif­fe­ring moti­ves for visit­ing the forum and dif­fe­rent usage effects were iden­ti­fied. The results ques­tion the assump­ti­ons that self-harm forums are a source of harm and point to their pre­do­mi­nantly con­struc­tive and preven­tive func­tions.

Zum voll­stän­di­gen Online-Artikel in Archi­ves of Sui­cide Rese­arch: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13811118.2016.1259597

Eichen­berg, C. & Schott, M. (2016). An Empi­ri­cal Ana­ly­sis of Inter­net Mes­sage Boards for Self-Harming Beha­vior. Archi­ves of Sui­cide Rese­arch, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2016.1259597.

Christiane Eichenberg, Cornelia Küsel und Brigitte Sindelar (2016): Computerspiele im Kindes- und ­Jugendalter

Geschlechts­spe­zi­fi­sche Unterschiede­ in der Prä­fe­renz von Spiel­gen­res, ­Spiel­an­for­de­run­gen und Spiel­fi­gu­ren und ihre Bedeu­tung für die Kon­zep­tion von ­Serious Games 

Com­pu­ter­spiele erfreuen sich im Kindes- und Jugend­al­ter gro­ßer Beliebt­heit. Es wer­den aktu­elle For­schungs­be­funde zu geschlechts­spe­zi­fi­schen Prä­fe­ren­zen bezüg­lich Spiel­gen­res, Spiel­an­for­de­run­gen und Spiel­fi­gu­ren von Com­pu­ter­spie­le­rin­nen und –spie­lern im Kindes- und Jugend­al­ter zusam­men­ge­fasst mit dem Ziel, sowohl medi­en­kon­zep­tio­nelle als auch ent­wick­lungs­psy­cho­lo­gi­sche Impli­ka­tio­nen für eine spe­zi­elle Form von Com­pu­ter­spie­len, die soge­nann­ten Serious Games, abzu­lei­ten und vor allem kri­tisch zu reflek­tie­ren.

Zum Online-Artikel: http://www.merz-zeitschrift.de/?NAV_ID=11&HEFT_ID=159&RECORD_ID=7283

Eichen­berg, C., Küsel, C. & Sin­delar, B. (2016). Com­pu­ter­spiele im Kindes- und Jugend­al­ter: Geschlechts­spe­zi­fi­sche Unter­schiede in der Prä­fe­renz von Spiel-Genres, Spiel­an­for­de­run­gen und Spiel­fi­gu­ren und ihre Bedeu­tung für die Kon­zep­tion von Serious Games. merz | medien + erzie­hung, Zeit­schrift für Medi­en­päd­ago­gik, 6, 97–109.